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Topic 6: Mining Methods Part II: Surface Mining

1 8) Open-pit mining sequence 1 9) Various open-pit and orebody configurations We will explore all of the above in Topic 6 February 2 2016 Prof Dr H Z Harraz Presentation 2) Limit or Ultimate Pit Definition: 2 1) Introduction 2 2) Manual Design 2 3) Computer Methods 2 4) Learchs-Grossman method 2 5) Floating cone method 3) Open pit Get price



Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation soil and bedrock which ultimately contributes to changes in surface hydrology groundwater levels and flow paths Additionally open-pit produces harmful pollutants depending on the type of mineral being mined and the type of mining Get price


Application of Optimisation Techniques in Open Pit

Declining trends in average ore grades increasing mining costs and environmental considerations will ensure that this situation will remain in the foreseeable future The operation and management of a large open pit mine having a life of several (5–50) years is an enormous and complex task Get price


What is an ultimate pit slope in an open pit mining?

At the end of life of a mine angle of the line joining from Crest to the Toe with horizontal is called uptimate pit slope angle At the last stage or end of mine life ultimate pit slope should be steep as possible to extract maximum amount of orGet price


Mining Terms

Open Pit Mining Strip Mining Quarry Mining Placer Mining Some Examples for Underground Mining Important Terms for Surface Mining Open Pit Mine (metals) Pit Limit: is the maximum vertical and lateral extent which may be excavated economically in an open pit mine Get price


[PHOTOS] Top 10 Largest Open Pit Mines in the World

Open-pit mining is one of the most commonly used techniques to extract minerals from the Earth The process which is also known as "opencast mining " "open-cut mining" and "strip mining " is used when deposits are located close to the surface and entails digging or blasting from the ground level to extract ore • Related content Get price



During early phases of open-pit mining production planning many parameters are uncertain and since the mining operation is performed only once any evaluations based only on on average outcomes neglects the very real chance of obtaining an outcome that is below average Get price


Blasting Drilling of Open Pit Mining

Pit design based on required flexibility Number of extraction areas mainly number of working benches Adequate equipment – Drilling Rigs Loader Trucks Curshers etc Get price


Optimized open pit mine design pushbacks and the gap

OPTIMIZED OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN PUSHBACKS AND THE GAP PROBLEM—A REVIEW 509 JOURNAL OF MINING SCIENCE Vol 50 No 3 2014 Fig 1 Schematic representation of an open pit design showing three pushbacks with gap problems Get price


Transition from open

In this manner the most sensitive problem is the determination of the optimal transition depth from open-pit to underground or vice versa To calculate this depth a model based on block economic values of open-pit and underground methods together with the Net Present Value (NPV) attained through mining is first presented Get price


Reduce ore dilution and loss in open pit mines

After all this effort mining engineers blast the in situ rock so it can be efficiently handled in the mill In open pit mines the required explosive displaces ore boundaries from where the Get price


Merits of open pit versus underground mining in the

Increasing energy costs can change the optimal proportion between open pit and underground mining In 1980-81 the Office of Surface Mining US Department of the Interior sponsered a research project at Michigan Technological University titled ''The Effects of Increasing Energy Costs on the Future Relation Between Open Pit and Underground Mining'' Get price


Operations Research in Open

Surface/Open-Pit Mining Pit Design Problem Block sequencing • The determination of the Ultimate Pit Limit (UPL) • Maximization of the total profit whilst satisfying the operational requirement of safe wall slopes • Balancing the ore-to-waste (stripping) ratio (SR) with the cumulative value in the pit boundaries Get price


Analysis of a slope failure in an open pit mine using

Background In 1996 a slope failure occurred at the Round Hill open pit mine operated by Macraes Mining Company Ltd The failure as shown in Figure 1 involved three benches at an intermediate slope that was being pushed back towards the final high wall location Get price


Open Pit Production Scheduling Optimisation

The long-term production schedule of open pit mines that maximises the net present value (NPV) of a given project relies on the proper design of phases (pushbacks) within the ultimate pit limits There is not a phase design algorithm applied in the mining industry today that Get price



Open-pit mining also known as opencast mining is a surface mining technique that extracts minerals from an open pit in the ground Open-pit mining is the most common method used throughout the world for mineral mining and does not require extractive methods or tunnels Get price



Geotechnical Considerations in Open Pit Mines Version 1 0 Department of Minerals and Energy Page 3 of 49 1 0 INTRODUCTION The potentially hazardous nature of open pit mining requires the application of sound geotechnical engineering practice to mine design and general operating procedures to Get price


Mining Methods

Type of Ore Bodies in Open Pit Mining - Generally massive ore bodies - Large vertical extent near the surface Waste Disposal in Open Pit - Waste is usually removed from the pit and transported to an area outside the pit limits Get price


(PDF) A Study on the Optimization Algorithms for

Determination of Mining Limits (ML) for each of Open-Pit (OP) and Underground (Ug) is one of the most significant part impacts the economic aspects Optimization process for the mentioned objective in both of OP and Ug mining was done on the economicGet price


A comparison of open pit design and scheduling

10-5-2007ABSTRACT Two competing software packages are commercially available for open pit production scheduling: Whittle Four-X and Earthworks NPVScheduler In this study NPVScheduler was benchmarked against the Four-X using a statistically designed experiment for accuracy optimality and technical practicality The ultimate pits generated by Get price



Find open-pit mine stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection Thousands of new high-quality pictures added every day Get price


Katanga Mining Announces Geotech Failure at KOV Open

ZUG SWITZERLAND March 8 2016 – Katanga Mining Limited (TSX: KAT) (Katanga or the Company) today announces that at 06 00 local time on 8 March 2016 a geotechnical failure was experienced on the north wall of the KOV open pit mine at Katanga's operation in the DRC Seven persons who wereGet price


(PDF) Stripping Ratios Pit Limits Cutoff Grade

CHAPTER 8 Stripping Ratios Pit Limits Cutoff Grade Optimization Dr Teuku Andika R Putra USM 2014 Stripping Ratios The stripping ratio (SR) refers to the amount of waste that must be removed for a given quantity of ore in open pit mining Get price


Adaptive Strategies for The Open

Adaptive Strategies for The Open-Pit Mine Optimal Scheduling Problem Michel De Lara Nelson Moralesy Nathana el Beekerz June 27 2017 Abstract Within the mining discipline mine planning is the component that studies how toGet price


The Advantages of Open Pit Mining

Open pit mining does offer some advantages over traditional deep shaft mining Pit mining is more cost effective than shaft mining because more ore can be extracted and more quickly The working conditions are safer for the miners because there is no risk of cave in or toxic gas Open pit mining Get price


A technique for assessing ultimate open

This thesis describes a computer-based technique for assessing ultimate open-pit mine limits The method accounts for uncertainties in the economic conditions that affect ultimate pit limits including mining and processing costs and mineral prices The proposed technique is Get price


Malartic Open Pit Mine in Quebec Should Serve As a

Daughter of a miner and herself executive director of a company servicing large mining clients in her region Ms Gagnon states that "she is not against mining " but insists that the Malartic open pit mine "should serve as a serious cautionary tale" for the people of Kamloops Get price


tambang: Ultimate Pit Definition

If the grade of the ore changed as the pit limit line was moved the breakeven stripping ratio to use would also change The pit limits are established on the longitudinal section in the same manner with the same stripping ratio curves The pit limits for the radial section are handled with a Get price


On the Dynamics of Mining Operations in Open Pit Mines

Open pit optimization formulations which consider ore and waste as the products of a mine produced under a variety of technical and economic constraints and managed under given mill demand are developed by Rzhenevisky [8] and Arsentiev [1] and are presented by Tan and Ramani [9] ON THE DYNAMICS OF MINING OPERATIONS IN OPEN PIT MINES 5Get price


Open pit taking shape at Timmins mine

6-6-2016Development work on Goldcorp's Hollinger open-pit mine in Timmins is progressing steadily Open pit taking shape at Timmins mine monitoring system that monitors noise from a 365-degree radius and can detect what noise is specifically coming from mining-related activities Get price


Energy consumption in underground mining and the

25-10-2019Increasing energy costs can change the optimal proportion between open pit and underground mining In 1980-81 the Office of Surface Mining US Department of the Interior sponsered a research project at Michigan Technological University titled ''The Effects of Increasing Energy Costs on the Future Relation Between Open Pit and Underground Mining'' Get price


Quebec To Decide On Canada's Largest Open

3-2-2015Its economy is heavily dependent on mining by large multinational companies but it has taken a severe blow with recent layoffs at Cliffs Natural Resources According to its supporters the Arnaud mine would create jobs and diversify the local economy But opponents say having an open-pit mine within city limits is too risky Get price


Innovation and Technology to Improve Open Pit Mine Plan

28-7-2016The "SimSched" mining software is a new software technology for open pit mine plan and design optimisation which uses an innovative algorithm based on operation research techniques (a surface constrained method) to plan and design the long term production scheduling which includes the ultimate pit of an orebody Get price

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